Le Nouveau Régime: Épisode de la Mise en Oeuvre de Nutrition Nord Canada au Nunavik, 2011-2013
Keywords:Nutrition Nord Canada, Sécurité alimentaire, Subvention, Nord, néolibéralisme
Cette étude examine la création et la mise en œuvre du programme Nutrition Nord Canada au Nunavik, entre 2011 et 2013. Ce dernier remplace le programme Aliments-poste, jugé inefficace et trop coûteux par le gouvernement fédéral, il était destiné à soutenir l’approvisionnement alimentaire des régions nordiques isolées du pays. L’étude est basée sur une série de documents et d’entrevues, ainsi qu’un suivi des prix à la consommation réalisé pendant cette période. L’étude montre que le passage d’un programme à l’autre était essentiellement basé sur l’application de la rationalité marchande à l’action publique, justifiant des réductions et restrictions du budget et des bénéfices, l’imposition des règles d’admissibilité et des procédures, la surveillance des opérations et le partage des responsabilités entre l’État, les entreprises et les citoyens. Pour bénéficier du programme, les entreprises devaient s’engager par contrat à réaliser les opérations les conduisant à toucher les subventions et à réduire les prix. Pour bénéficier de la réduction des prix, les citoyens devaient adapter leurs comportements d’achat aux normes de l’« alimentation saine », en dépit de leurs préférences. Ce programme est un exemple de régulation biopolitique des conduites, où la citoyenneté « active » est la condition d’accès aux bénéfices de l’action publique.
This study explores the creation and implementation of the Nutrition North Canada program in Nunavik between 2011 and 2013. Nutrition North Canada replaces the Food Mail Program, intended to support the supply of food to the isolated northern regions of the country, and which was deemed ineffective and too costly by the federal government. The study is based on a series of records and interviews, as well as a follow-up of consumer prices during this period. It shows that the transition from one program to another was essentially based on the application of market rationality to public action, justifying reductions and restrictions of the budget and profits, the imposition of the rules of eligibility and procedures, oversight of operations and sharing of responsibilities between the state, businesses and citizens. To benefit from the program, companies had to commit to carry out the operations leading to receiving subsidies and reducing prices. To benefit from the price reduction, citizens had to adapt their purchasing behaviour to the standards of “healthy eating”, despite their preferences. This program is an example of biopolitical regulation of conduct, where “active” citizenship is the condition for access to the benefits of public action.
Key words: Nutrition North Canada; Nunavik; neoliberalism; public action; sociology
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