Professionnels des services publics de l'emploi dans les pays industrialisés: Diversité de contextes et similarités de discours
AbstractS'appuyant sur une recension d'6crits principalement franpis, canadiens et amCricains, cet article traite de l'accompagnement en emploi des populations exclues du march6 du travail, une fonction ayant Cmerg6 de l'activation des politiques publiques de l'emploi des demisres annCes et qui devient le principal mode d'engagement de l ' ~ t a te nvers les populations exclues du march6 du travail. En s'attardant particulisrement aux discours des professionnels de l'accompagnement sur la mise en euvre de cette fonction, Particle souligne le r61e des transactions entre les agents des politiques publiques et leurs clients sur les effets des rCformes des regimes d'aide sociale. Bien que les pratiques quotidiennes des chargCs d'accompagnement diffsrent selon les contextes sp6cifiques dans lesquels elles s'inscrivent, des etudes recensCes indiquent une convergence des discours des agents des services publics, privCs ou associatifs des politiques de I'emploi en ce qui a trait 5 l'utilisation de leur rCseau social, aux contraintes qu'ils rencontrent ainsi qu'h la forte dimension relationnelle qu'ils associent ii la fonction d'accompagnement. Particle se conclut en constatant le manque &information liC 5 ces acteurs intermkdiaires du march6 du travail, notamment sur leurs modes d'organisation, leurs stratCgies et les justifications de leurs actions. Abstract Based on a review of predominantly French, Canadian and American literature this article deals with employment coaching of populations excluded from the labour. Professionnels des services publics de l'emploi dam les pays il~dustrialis~s market. This is a new function that emerged from the activation of public employment policies over the past few years, and has become now the principal mode of commitment of the state towards populations excluded from the labour market. Focusing on the discourse and practices of counselling professionals, concerning the development of this function, the article highlights the impact of transactions between agents of public policy and their clients on the effects of reforms to social assistance programs. While day to day practices vary among coaching providers according to their specific environments, the literature review shows a convergence of practices among agents of public, private or community employment policies in the use of their own social networks, the constraints they encounter and the strong relational aspects they associate with their counselling function. In concluding, the article notes a lack of awareness of their roles as intermediaries in the labour market, in and in particular about their use of organisational procedures, strategies, and rationale for their actions.
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